Manchester New Hampshire Teacher, WW1 Red Cross Nurse, Public Health Nurse, Women’s Rights Advocate, Civic Leader, Clubwoman: Elena Mae (Crough) Lockwood (1884-1962)

Elena M. Crough, photograph taken in 1917 for her Red Cross nursing application.

Elena M. Crough, photograph taken in 1917 for her Red Cross nursing application.

She was the youngest daughter, and eighth child, of Irish immigrants, born in 1884 in Manchester, New Hampshire. Elena Mae Crough was bright, and well liked. She grew up at 343 Harrison Street, graduated from the Ash Street Grammar School, and Manchester High School. She worked as a teacher while she attended two years of normal school, followed by two more years at the Lynn Hospital nursing program, where she graduated in 1908.

She combined her love of teaching and nursing, working in private homes, and later in child welfare, district nursing, and as a school nurse. One must remember that nursing as a licensed profession was in its infancy during this time.  It was only in 1906 that the Graduate Nurses Association of New Hampshire was formed.  The following year (1907) then-Governor John McLane signed a bill into law requiring nurse registration.

Lithograph Poster: Join--Red CRoss Work Must Go On! World War I Poster, Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington DC

Lithograph Poster: Join–Red Cross Work Must Go On! World War I Poster, Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington DC

Several recommendations that give us insight into Elena’s personality and skill were among the many papers in her Red Cross folder.  The quotes below speak of her as an exemplary and accomplished nurse.

“For over two years I was in a position to watch her work as a pupil nurse at Lynn Hospital; and since her graduation. I have had her as a nurse in my own family in one case. I would recommend her as a very intelligent and efficient nurse; cheerful at all times and of marked executive ability. Her character is above reproach.” — Nathaniel Pope Breed, M.D. October 7, 1908

“She is a young lady of the highest character, of a bright and sunny disposition, intelligent, skillful in her profession, and thoroughly conscientious and reliable.” — Annie I. Fletcher, Boston, Mass., March 24, 1917

“Well groomed and attractive; amiable and gracious, dignified and courteous. Very good worker, doing good work as school nurse. Absolutely reliable. Splendid judgement.” –Elizabeth Murfey, R.N., April 12, 1917

Elena Crough's application to join the American Red Cross in 1917. Prior experience includes: private work from 1908-1914; school nurse Manchester NH 1914-1917.

Elena Crough’s application to join the American Red Cross in 1917. Prior experience includes: private work from 1908-1914; school nurse Manchester NH 1914-1917.

In February of 1917 Elena applied to join the American  Red Cross. The U.S. declared war on April 6th, 1917, the beginning of our country’s involvement in World War 1. Skilled nurses were needed to accompany the American Expeditionary Forces in Europe.  In 1918 Elena served as a Red Cross Nurse, sailing August 7, 1918 assigned to run an Italian Unit–a hospital in Padova, Italy.

Nursing in Italy, especially Padova, was difficult and dangerous. Dorothea Matilda Taylor, a trained nurse from Scotland wrote of her experience there (later published in “Reminiscent Sketches,” by John Bale, Sons and Danielsson, Ltd, 1922).

“New Year’s Day, 1918, was passed at Padova. The night being spent at the hotel – a dreary and dreadfully cold place – the people had no fuel by which to heat the hotel, and even cooking was a great difficulty, as was also food. They had three meatless days at Padova each week – we hit upon one of them and dined in one corner of a large cold dining-room. Most of the night was spent in the cellar as the place was being bombed. We were politely informed that as they had only one charcoal fire for everything, we could not be supplied with both coffee for breakfast and hot water to wash in, but must forego one or the other. We chose the coffee – hoping to wash in the water that was in our hot bottles – this hope, however, had to be abandoned as on pouring out the water it was evident that it had been used for washing the dishes in from the previous night’s dinner.”

Reportedly Elena received a citation from the Italian government for her service there.  World War I officially ended on 11 November 1918. She remained in Italy for a while, being officially released from service and returned to the United States via Italy on 22 June 1919. [A bit of Red Cross trivia: Ernest Hemingway was a young ambulance driver for the American Red Cross in Italy at about this same time.]

Elena returned home from the war and settled in New Hampshire, living with her sister on 471 Maple Street in Manchester NH.  She worked for the NH Tuberculosis Association [later called The NH Lung Association, now called Breathe NH].  This work would have felt personal to her, as she had lost several family members to the terrible illness. A July 1921 issue of the Bulletin, published by the American Lung Association, reported on the first Post-Graduate Institute for tuberculosis workers held in New York. Among the ‘students’ who attended was Elena M. Crough of Manchester NH.

History: On November 23, 1921, President Warren G. Harding signed the Sheppard-Towner Maternity and Infancy Act into law. Women’s groups had lobbied for the law for years. The intent was to lower high mortality rates among mothers and newborns. The Sheppard-Towner Act provided $1 million annually in federal aid (for 5 years) to state programs for mothers and babies.

Photograph of Elena Crough from the February 1924 Granite State Monthly

Photograph of Elena M. Crough from the February 1924 Granite State Monthly

By January 1924 Elena Crough was chief of the Division of Child Hygiene for the state of New Hampshire and supervisor of public health nursing.

 The January 12, 1924 Boston Herald proclaimed: “Rides 57 Miles Through Drifts on Sick Calls….Concord NH, Miss Elena M. Clough, state supervising maternity and child welfare nurse, reported to the state board of health officer here today that Wednesday she rode 57 miles over country roads in Cheshire county in a small open car and yesterday walked six miles over snow-blocked roads to attend a sick woman.”

The Granite State Monthly, in its February 1924 issue, featured Elena M. Crough as the state supervising nurse of the State Board of Health and the director of the division of Maternity, Infancy and Child hygiene under the Sheppard-Towner Act. The article goes on to say that over 10,000 women benefited from the services offered in 1923.

In the Granite State Monthly article, “It is my ambition,” said Miss Crough, “to reach in some way every mother and expectant mother and provide them with necessary information, if they are to have normal, healthy babies. Through our nurses and our literature we will be able to teach every expectant mother to immediately consult a physician. It is incredible and amazing the ignorance we find on all side concerning the need of adequate prenatal care and the feeding and general care of babies.  It is of the greatest importance that every woman should realize that the future health and well being of her child depends to a great extent on whether she herself is properly cared for before its birth, and whether or not it is breast fed.”

The Portsmouth Herald of December 1924 reported that 150 nurses were then employed in New Hampshire for public health including cities, towns, school districts, anti-tuberculosis and visiting nurse associations and the Red Cross. Miss Elena M. Crough, as the state supervising nurse, signed the report. The article goes on to say that “much of the credit for the eight percent reduction in the state death rate from tuberculosis is claimed for the nurse service and definite progress in child hygiene and pre-natal instruction.”   During this time, Elena was a frequent public speaker and spokesperson for New Hampshire public health nursing.

In May of 1926, two years before President Calvin Coolidge would proclaim a National Child Health Day, a Child Health Day event was held in the State of New Hampshire.  Elena Crough reported in the Granite State Monthly, “Observance of May first as Child Health Day was universal in New Hampshire this year.  In practically every town and city, chairmen assisted by competent committees, arranged a program for their community.”

Elena Crough married in 1927, in Manhattan NY, to Maurice H. Lockwood, son of Herbert M. & Bertha A. (Doolittle) Lockwood of Connecticut.  After their marriage, Elena and her husband lived in Springfield, Massachusetts. According to her obituary, Elena also served for a short time after her marriage in the Public Health Nursing Division and Children’s Bureau, Washington.

1931 Springfield Republican newpaper article about Elena (Crough) Lockwood's involvement with the League of Woman Voters.

1931 Springfield Republican newpaper article about Elena (Crough) Lockwood’s involvement with the League of Woman Voters.

After her marriage, Elena appears to have given up nursing. She was greatly involved with the local women’s clubs, as a member of the Springfield Women’s Club, “serving on its board and heading a number of its committees. She was president of the Western Massachusetts Club from 1942 to 1944. Shortly after her arrival in Springfield, she served as president of the Springfield League of Women Voters and at the same time headed its committee of legal status for women. During that time she spoke before clubs and other organizations advocating jury service for women.

She was also was a member of Ramapogue Women’s Club of West Springfield, the West Springfield Women’s Club, and for 10 years was on the board of the Foreign Policy Association. She was a member of the Adult Education Committee and the Council of Social Agencies, as well as the Children’s Aid Association which she served as president for three years.

She died in April of 1962 in Winnetka, Illinois, at the age of 78. For next of kin, her obituary only mentions her husband, “Maurice H. Lockwood of Winnetka, former president of the National Fertilizers Association.” She was buried in Sacred Heart Cemetery, in Northbrook, Cook Co. Illinois. Her husband moved back to Connecticut, and died in Fairfield in 1977 in Ridgefield, CT, and is buried there. Her partial genealogy is shown below.

Elena M. (Crough) Lockwood had a tremendous impact on New Hampshire women of her day, and of their children, always seeking and promoting a healthier life for both mother and child through education.  She should be remembered.

***ADDITIONAL READING***

World War I and the American Red Cross

Nursing with the Italian Expeditionary Forces

If I Fail He Dies – Red Cross Poster, WW1

 

===PARTIAL GENEALOGY OF ELENA MAE (CROUGH) LOCKWOOD===

1967 Photograph of Elena M. (Crouch) Lockwood from her printed obituary.

1967 Photograph of Elena M. (Crouch) Lockwood from her newspaper obituary.

John Crough,  b 24 Dec 1825 in Ireland, d. 26 Dec 1913 in Manchester NH, 343 Harrison Street, aged 62 years. His death certificate states his parents were William Crough and Julia Cassidy, however, his daughter Elena’s registration with the American Red Cross states they were Miles Crough and Judith Fay.  He is buried at St. Joseph Cemetery, Manchester NH. He married in Ireland to Mary Walsh, daughter of John & Joanna (Roache) Walsh.  She was b abt 1837 in Ireland and d. 26 May 1901 in Manchester, NH, [her death cert states aged 54, but this is obviously incorrect, with her burial records showing the correct age of 64].   John and Mary lived in the Deering-Weare area from about 1850 until just before Elena’s birth in 1884, when they removed to Manchester NH. Reportedly they were both naturalized in 1850, however the 1910 US Census states he did not immigrate until 1857-59.
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1870 US Census > NH > Hillsborough > Deering
John Crough 44 Farmer 1300/700 Ireland
Mary Crough 33 Ireland
Julia Crough 9 NH
Thomas F. Crough 8 NH
John E. Crough 6 NH
Hanora J. Crough 3 NH
——————–
1880 US Census > NH > Hillsborough > Deering
John Crough Self M 54 Ireland
Mary Crough wife F 43 Ireland
Julia A. Crough daughter F 19 NH
Thomas F. Crough son M 18 NH
John E. Crough son M 15 NH
Leonara J. Crough dau F 13 NH
William H. Crough son M 6 NH
Miles L Crough M son 2 NH
Babe Crough daughter F 0 NH
Walter Gilbert nephew M 3 NH
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1910 US Census > NH > Hillsborough > Manchester
343 Harrison Street
Crough John Head M W 83 widow Ire-Gaelie Unk Unk
Crough, Lena daughter F W 28 single NH Ire Ire nurse, trained, private family
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Burial Places of the Crough Family in St. Joseph Cemetery, Manchester NH
Crough, Frank 38-1-29day 3/29/1902 New near Fence unk
Crough, Honorie Janet 49 4/2/1925 Fidelus 1939
Crough, John 88y2d 12/26/1913 Fidelus 1939
Crough, M Ligouri ® ? 1/1/1925 Fidelus 1939-40
Crough, Mary Walch ® 64 5/26/1901 Fidelus 1939-1940
Crough, T Frances ® 40 1/1/1902 Fidelus 1939-40
Crough, William H 35y10m19d 3/8/1909 Fidelus 1940
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Children of John & Mary (Walsh) Crough:
1. Julia A. Crough, b. abt 1862 Weare NH, d. 20 March 1906 Lynn, MA; m. 28 April 1887 in Manchester NH to Edward S. Carey
2. Thomas Frank “T. Frank” Crough, b. abt 1864 Weare NH, d. 29 March 1902 in NH, aged 38; m. 4 May 1890 in Manchester NH to Hattie M. Rice, dau of Robert S. & Luvilla/Loretta W. (Snett) Rice. She b. abt 1868 in Henniker NH, and d. 15 Feb 1891 in Manchester NH. Occupation teamster. They had a daughter Mary Edna Crough, b. 18 Aug 1890 in Manchester NH. In 1900 Mary Edna was living in Henniker NH with her grandmother, Lorilla Rice and extended family. In 1950 she was a Catholic nun, Sister St. Stephen of the Convent of Jesus and Mary, 138 St. Joseph Street, Fall River, Mass. occupation, religious teacher. Nationality: Canada (naturalized).
3. John E. Crough, b. 1865-66 NH.
4. William H. Crough, b 17 April 1874 in Deering NH; d. 8 March 1909, aged 35y 10m 19d, Navy Yard, Boston MA, accidental fall due to electric shock, resulting in compound fracture of skull. In 1900 he was living in Lynn MA, married 5 years a machinist. His wife, Margaret Thomas, b. June 1873 in Canada-English, her father b. in Wales, mother in Canada. She had immigrated in 1891. They had 2 children: Roland Edgar Crough, b. 17 Aug 1896 in Lynn MA; and William Harold Crough b. 17 Jan 1898 in Lynn MA. In 1940 Mary (Thomas) Crough was living in Flint City, Genesee Co. Michigan with her son Roland, and his wife Mary (Carroll) Crough.
5. Honora/Honorie Janet Crough, b. 1875 in Deering NH, d. 2 April 1925 in Manchester NH, age 49. Never married.
6. Miles Liquori Crough, b 26 Aug 1877 NH; Enlisted 28 Apr 1898 Boston MA private Co. L, 7th U.S. Artillery, discharged 19 July 1899 NY, medical release; married and divorced, residing Los Angeles, California. Hospitalized in 1921 and died 23 Oct 1924 in California of  chronic pulmonary tuberculosis. Location of grave: Sec 8, Row C, No. 3 [unknown cemetery]
7. Willie N. Crough, b. 26 Aug 1877 Deering NH
8. +Elena Mae “Lena M.” Crough, b. 5 April 1884 Manchester NH

Elena Mae Crough, daughter of John & Mary (Walsh) Crough, born 5 April 1884 Manchester NH.  This story is about her.  See above for photographs and details.  She married 15 Aug 1927 in Manhattan NY to Maurice Howard Lockwood, son of Herbert M. & Bertha A. (Doolittle) Lockwood. He was a captain in the US Army during WW1. He graduated in the Class of 1921 from the University of Connecticut.  In 1958 he was awarded the UCONN distinguished alumni award. For many years he was president of the National Fertilizers Association. He was b. 6 August 1899 in Bristol CT.  [see Lockwood Genealogy].  She died April 27, 1962 in Winnetka IL and is buried in Sacred Heart Cemetery in Northbrook, Cook Co. IL.  He removed to Connecticut (possibly remarried to Phyllis –), and died 15 Sep 1977 in Ridgefield CT.  He was buried in St. Mary’s Cemetery in Ridgefield, Fairfield Co. CT.  [though he has a blank stone next to Elena Mae in IL].
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1919 New Britain CT Directory
Lockwood, A. Elizabeth steno bds 793 East
*Lockwood, Herbert N. real estate and insurance (407) 27 W Main h 793 East
Lockwood Mary bkkpr Am Hardware Corp bds 793 East
Lockwood, Maurice H. student bds 793 East
Lockwood, Newton L draftsman bds 793 East
———————–
Friday, March 2, 1962 Springfield Union (Springfield MA)
DEATHS [April 27, 1962 about]
HEALTH, CLUB WORKER DIES
Mrs. Maurice Lockwood Active Here Up to ’46
Mrs. Elena Mae (Crough) Lockwood of Winnetka, Ill., formerly of this city, died Sunday in Highland Park Hospital, Highland Park Ill. Mrs. Lockwood was prominent in women’s clubs and many other Springfield organizations from 1925 to 1946.
She was born in Manchester N.H., daughter of the late John and Mary (Walsh) Crough. She was graduated from Manchester High School, attended normal school for two years and was graduated from Lynn General Hospital School of Nursing. She also took public health courses in New York. At the time of her marriage in New York City in 1925, she was chief of the Division of Child Hygiene for the state of New Hampshire and supervisor of public health nursing. She also served for a short time after her marriage in the Public Health Nursing Division and Children’s Bureau, Washington. She was a member of the Springfield Women’s Club, serving on its board and heading a number of its committees. She was president of the Western Massachusetts Club from 1942 to 1944. Shortly after her arrival in this city she served as president of the Springfield League of Women Voters and at the same time headed its committee of legal status for women. During that time she spoke before clubs and other organizations advocating jury service for women.
Mrs. Lockwood also was a member of Ramapogue Women’s Club of West Springfield, the West Springfield Women’s Club, and for 10 years was on the board of the Foreign Policy Association. She was a member of the Adult Education Committee and the Council of Social Agencies, as well as the Children’s Aid Association which she served as president for three years. During the first World War she was a Red Cross nurse in charge of an Army hospital in Padova, Italy, and received a citation from the Italian government
Mrs. Lockwood leaves her husband, Maurice H. Lockwood of Winnetka, former president of the National Fertilizers Association.
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No children.

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4 Responses to Manchester New Hampshire Teacher, WW1 Red Cross Nurse, Public Health Nurse, Women’s Rights Advocate, Civic Leader, Clubwoman: Elena Mae (Crough) Lockwood (1884-1962)

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  2. Amy says:

    That is quite an impressive resume, and I love that she was living in Springfield, MA, for some period of time. I wonder what took her to Winnetka, although even today, lots of people leave Springfield! Also, where did you find those reviews? It reminded me of reviews today that you see online.

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