Somersworth New Hampshire, located in Strafford County, is the smallest of New Hampshire’s 13 cities, and one with the 3rd lowest population. In 1893 it was incorporated as a city, and was also known as “Great Falls.” At the time of the 1st World War its population was about 6,688 people.
The City of Somersworth Annual Reports give some insight into how returning soldiers were recognized. The 1919 report states: “We shall be pleased to appropriate money for a fitting celebration for our returned soldiers at some time during the year..” (p 8). The 1920 Annual Report shows how monies were spent from the World War Veteran’s Account, including a banquet, decorations, fireworks, orchestra, parade. The total was $1,181.09, a great deal of money at that time, so the event must have been spectacular.
The Somersworth Historical Society sits on the spot of the former City Hall. Following the years of World War I, according to Jenne Holmes, a member of the Board of Directors at the Summersworth (Somersworth) Historical Society, a hand-painted wooden sign sat on the lawn listing those who had served and died from the city. That temporary monument disappeared long ago. A memorial specific to World War I was never built, though the City has two monuments that commemorate those who served in all wars (in Stein Park next to the Somersworth museum, and at Mount Calvary Cemetery).
The American Legion Post 69 in Somerworth was organized by veterans of World War I, receiving a charter on 20 December 1919. According to the Post’s web site “all of Somersworth’s servicemen who died in the service of their country, as a mark of respect, were honored when the Post was chartered.” I spoke with the Post’s Commander, Raymond Doyon, who was thoughtful enough to read to me the names engraved on a plaque from May 20, 1952 commemorating the men from WWI. A few of the names were new to me, and I was unable to learn anything or much about: P. Borraso, Paul Bowe, Joseph Poirier*, and Leon Provencher. Perhaps they died in training camp, or served in the Canadian or British forces. Some other names on the plaque I had already researched and are detailed below: Raymond Boulay, Alphonse Dumond, Luc Guignard, Romeo Nadeau and Ulderic Vezeau (in the latter mentioned, my research shows a different first name). There appears to be a total of 16 men, all counted, who gave up their lives.
It was not easy to compile a list of those who served during WWI from the City of Somersworth. I created the following list from various sources including the NH Adjutant General’s List of Casualties, grave markers, transport and death records. Several of the men were officially credited to other places, however if they were known to be born in Somersworth NH I include them here.
HEROES OF SOMERSWORTH NH
Those who lost their lives during WWI
with a connection to Somersworth, New Hampshire
The following legend is used to show the source of the name provided on this list. Soldier or nurse is listed on:
[A] WWI Roll of Honor, Doric Hall, State House, Concord NH
[B] Adjutant General’s List of Killed in Action from New Hampshire
[C] Buried in Europe, American Battle Monuments Commission
[D] Other Official Military Sources
[E] Gold Star Mothers of Massachusetts
[F] Birth and/or Marriage Records
[G] U.S. Military Transport Records
[H] Death or Burial Records
[I] U.S. Navy Records (various)
[J] Soldiers of the Great War, Haulsee, W.M.
[K] Newspaper notices
* Photograph or likeness provided or available.
[#] Numbers refer to a footnote following the list with additional information on a particular soldier or sailor.
BISSON, Odilon Jr. | Private | Died of Disease (Pneumonia, Influenza), Post Hospital, Ft. Ethan Allen, Colchester VT | 10th Cavalry, 12th Squadron | St. John’s Cemetery, Lancaster MA | Attributed to Lancaster MA |[E][H]
BOULAY, Raymond* | Private | Died of Disease before 4 Dec 1918 | Battery A 66th Artillery, Coast Artillery Corps | Buried U.S.A. (possibly Holy Trinity Cemetery) | [A][F][G][J][Photo]
COTE, William E. | Private | Died of Disease 22 October 1918, France |Co. I, 302nd Infantry, 72d Div. | St. Mihiel American Cemetery, France | [A][C][G]
CROWLEY, Daniel Joseph | Engineman 2c | Accidentally Drowned 29 July 1918 | USN, U.S.S. Walke | St. Pauls Cemetery, Arlington MA | Attributed to Somerville MA | [E][I]
DUMOND, Alphonse | Private | Killed in Action 17 June 1918 Chateau Thierry, France | Co. G., 103rd Infantry | Mount Calvaire Cemetery, Somersworth NH | [A][B][F][H][J]
GUIGNARD, LUC* | Private | Killed in Action 12 October 1918 | Co. A 325th Infantry | Burial Unknown |[A][B][F][J][Photo]
LOUD, Raymond E. | Private | Died of Disease 1 October 1918 | Medical Dept., U.S. Army | Burial Unknown | Attributed to Salem MA | [E]
MOORE, Frank O. | Private | Killed in Action 29 Sep 1918 | 147th Infantry Regiment, 37th Division | Meuse-Argonne American Cemetery, France | His mother, Hattie Moore, was Gold Star Mother | [A][B]
NADEAU, Romeo* | Private | April 1918 Died of Wounds/Appendicitis | Co D, 103rd Infantry | Mount Calvaire Cemetery, Somersworth NH |[J][K][Photo]
NIMMO, Hugh Watson | Lieutenant | Died of Disease 11 Feb 1919 at U.S. Naval Hospital, Brest, France | USN, “Prometheus | Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington VA | Attributed to Massachusetts | [E][I] 
POURIER, Joseph Alfred | Soldier | Died of Disease (pneumonia/influenza) 25 Sep 1918 Hospital Room, Training Detachment, Hanover NH | U.S. Army | Buried Somersworth NH | [H]
ROLEAU, Joseph Jr. | Private | Killed in Action 20 Oct 1918 France | Co C 309th Infantry | Meuse-Argonne Cemetery, France | NH Adj. Gen. List attributes to Lincoln NH | Mother Georgianna was Gold Star Mother from Somersworth NH | [A][B]
VEZEAU, Albert E. | Private | Died of Disease 24 April 1919 US Army General Hospital No. 16, New Haven CT | Casual Detachment, 151st D.B. | Mount Calvaire Cemetery, Somersworth NH | Attributed to Massachusetts | [E]
 Odilon Bisson, Jr. was born 27 November 1891 at Somersworth NH, son of Odilon & Philomene (Lavoie) Bisson. They were living in South Lancaster MA in 1919. He had siblings Ephraim Bisson of Clinton MA; Henry, Eva, Joseph, Alice, Jessie, and Frances. He was a mail carrier. He entered military service on 9 May 1918 in Troop I, 310th Cavalry and was transferred to Battery C, 59th Field Artillery. He died on 19 October 1918 at the Post Hospital, at Fort Ethan Allen in Colchester Vermont, of disease (i.e. pneumonia resulting from influenza). He is buried in St. John’s Cemetery, Lancaster MA. His service is credited to Lancaster MA.
 Raymond Boulay was born “Raymond Boule” on 20 May 1895 in Somersworth NH, son and 2nd child of Louis & Florida (Labointe) Boule. Raymond’s father was a shoemaker. In 1900 Raymond was living in Somersworth with parents and sister Marie. Raymond Boulay married 9 July 1917 at Somersworth NH to Rose Anna Lemay, daughter of Edmond & Georgiana (Lafreniere) Lemay. During WWI he served in Battery A 66th Artillery, Coast Artillery Corps. His service number was #587948. He sailed on the ship Lancashire on 19 Jul 1918 from Boston MA to Europe. The Daily Kennebec Journal newspaper of Dec 4, 1918 announced: “Died of Disease, Private Raymond Boulay, Somersworth NH.” He was initially buried in France. His remains were returned to the United States, on the ship USAT Wheaton, sailing from Bordeaux, France on 29 November 1920, and arriving in Hoboken, NJ 15 December 1920, to be reburied in the United States. [SEE PHOTOGRAPH above].
 William E. Cote was born Etienne Joseph Cote on 2 August 1889 Somersworth NH, son of Joseph Cote & Adeline Michaud. [This man was listed as unknown in my first publication of these heroes, and updated on 9 July 2018 after further research]. William Cote registered for the WWI Draft on 5 June 1917 from Somersworth NH. He was living on Orange Street, Somersworth NH, b. 2 August 1889 in Somersworth. Occupation: garage keeper for Alfred Vachon of Wells Beach Maine. He was single, of medium height and build, with blue eyes and blond hair. The U.S. Military Transport Passenger Lists show a William Etchin Cote (sic) departing New York City on 5 July 1918 aboard the ship Aquitania bound for Europe. He was a Private in Company I, 302nd Infantry, and his next of kin was Mrs. Albina Foster of Dover NH. His service number was 2723056. He died of disease in France on October 22, 1918 and is buried in Plot A Row 26 Grave 8 of the St. Mihiel American Cemetery, Thiaucourt, France.
 Daniel Joseph Crowley was born 8 September 1879 at Somersworth NH, son of Michael & Hanora (Hourihan) Crowley. He had siblings, Rev. J.T. Crowley of Manchester NH, Joseph and Jeremiah Crowley of Dover NH, Mary E. Crowley of Jamaica Plain MA. He married 28 November 1906 in Boston MA to Catherine Anastasia Sweeney of Somerville MA At the time of his death he had daughter, Mildred and Margaret A., and had been a resident of Massachusetts for ten years. He enlisted in the U.S. Navy at New York, NY on September 10, 1915. He held the rank of Engineman 2nd Class. He was serving on the U.S.S. Walke at the time of his death. The U.S. Navy Casualties Book states: “While crossing from the U.S.S. Mayrant to this vessel, the following man fell off the gangplank striking his head against the guard rail, causing instant drowning: CROWLEY, Daniel Joseph Engineman 2 class 29 July 1918 U.S.S. WALKE.” He is buried in St. Pauls Cemetery, Arlington MA.
 Alphonse “Alfred” Dumond was born 11 September of 1896 in Salmon Falls (Rollinsford) NH, son of Alfred & Anna “Annie” (Croft) Dumond. In 1900 he was living in South Berwick, York Co. Maine with his parents and siblings, Pierre J., Joseph F., Arthur, and Emerick J. As “Alfred Dumond” he married 19 January 1916 in South Berwick Maine to Eva Sevigny, daughter of Arthur & Adeline (Drapeau) Sevigny. She was born in Somersworth NH. Alphonse served during WWI in Co. G, 103rd Infantry as a Private with Serial # 68408. He enslited in served on 25 July 1917. He was killed in action on 17 June 1918 in France during the Battle of Chateau Thierry. His remains were returned home, where he was buried in Mount Calvaire Cemetery in Somersworth NH. A military headstone marks his grave.
 Luc Guignard was born Joseph Luc M. Guignard on April 30, 1895 in Pembroke NH , son and 13th child of Auguste & Marie (Berube) Guignard [though his WWI registration form says Suncook, and the census records show Canada]. In the 1910 census, his parents indicated they had moved from Canada to the United States in 1895, the same year that Luc was born. In the 1910 census he was living with his parents in Somersworth NH along with sublings Georginia, Mary, Louis and Marion. His WWI Registration form was completed in October of 1917 rather than in June, the notation showing that he had been in Canada during the first registration. He was unemployed and had served previously as a private in the U.S. Army Infantry for 1 year and 10 months. He describes himself as being of medium height and of short stature with black hair and eyes. He served during WWI with the rank of Private in Company A of the 32th Infantry with service number: 1686199. He was sent overseas on 25 Apr 1918 from New York, New York on the ship “Khyber.” The NH Adjutant General’s Casualty List shows he was killed in action on 12 October 1918. His burial place is unknown. SEE his photograph above.
 Raymond Eugene Loud was born 21 June 1896 in Somersworth NH, son of Eugene E. & Alice A. (Curtis) Loud. In the 1900 census he was living in Somersworth NH with his family and siblings William and Tillia, along with his maternal grandmother Mary J. Curtis. On 5 June 1917 he completed his WWI Registration form, when he was living in Cleveland Ohio, working as a chauffeur. At that time he notes he had served as a private in the NH National Guard for 3 years. He was single, tall, stout, with blue eyes and light brown hair. Because at the time of his death his parents were living in Salem MA, more information can be found in the Gold Star Mothers of Massachusetts book where it states: “Loud, Raymond E., died 1 Oct., 1918 of disease. Ent. 21 May 1918; assigned to Medical Dept., inducted at Cleveland Ohio. Born 21 June 1893 at Somersworth NH, son of Eugene E. & Alice A. (Curtis) Loud of Salem [MA].” His burial place is unknown. [Editor’s Note: his parents are buried in Carver Cemetery, Carvers Pond, Vinalhaven Island, Maine. Two of his younger siblings are buried at Forest Glade Cemetery, Somersworth NH].
 Frank O. Moore was born b. 7 Jan 1892 in Somersworth NH, son of George F. & Annie M. (Crockett) Moore. In 1900 Frank was living in Somersworth, with father George, mother Annie M. and “niece” of his parents Elvira A. Wadleigh. In 1910 living in Somersworth NH with father George F., and mother Hattie F. He had no siblings. During WWI he served as a private in the 147th Infantry Regiment, 37th Division. He was killed in action on 29 September 1918, and is buried in the Meuse-Argonne American Cemetery, France. His mother, Hattie Moore was Gold Star Mother. Biography also reported in Rochester, New Hampshire story on this blog.
 Romeo Nadeau was born 24 Jun 1893 at St. Charles, Quebec, Canada, son of Alexandre & Celanire (Samson/Sonson) Nadeau. In 1910 he was living in Somersworth NH with his parents and siblings siblings: Exellia, William, Annie, Blanche, Exzilda, and Alice. In June of 1917 when he completed his WWI form, he was living at 15 Duchgo Hill Road, Somersworth NH. He was of medium build, short, with brown hair and grey eyes. He was employed as a shoemaker at E.W. Warren Shoe Co., Somersworth NH. During WWI he served in Co. D, 103rd Infantry. There are varying reports of how and when he died [see following] but the best guess is that he died in April of 1918 from a combination of wounds inflicted earlier and of appendicitis. At first buried in France, his remains were returned home to Somersworth where he received a military funeral and was buried in Mount Calvaire Cemetery, Somersworth NH. [Transcription of three newspaper clippings follow]. Feb 24 1918 Boston Globe, reported wounded [slightly wounded] “enlisted last June at Manchester in the 1st New Hampshire Regiment, which forms a part of the 103rd Infantry. He was born in Somersworth NH and is 23 years old. ” April 30, 1918 Boston Globe, page 3. “Private Romeo Nadeau of Co. D, 163d Infantry, who serveral weeks ago was reported killed in battle, and later to have lost a leg, but who actually according to authentic information, suffered only a slight wound from which he recovered, and again went to the trenches, is now dead from appendicitis, according to official notification just received by his parents, Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Nadeau of Indigo Hill road, Somersworth N.H. Nadeau was 24 years old and enlisted July 24, 1917 and is the second Somersworth soldier to die in France.” August 14 1921 Boston Globe. SOMERSWORTH Aug 13–One of the largest military funerals held here was that for private Romeo Nadeau of Co D. 103rd Infantry, who died in France in 1918 after having been wounded in the trenches. The body arrived here Monday and the funeral took place Tuesday at St. Martin’s Church, which was packed with friends of the soldier. Several priests participated in the requiem ceremonies. Burial was in Mt. Calvary Cemetery. A volley was fired over the grave and taps was sounded. Nadeau was 24 years old and a native of St. Charles, Que. He was the son of Alexandre Nadeau.” He is not listed on the Roll of Honor in the NH State House, though he should be.
 Hugh Watson Nimmo was born about 1886 in Somersworth NH, son of William & Elizabeth A. (Taylor) Nimmo. His parents were Scottish born who immigrated in 1883 to the United States. In 1901 he enlisted in the United States Navy (detailed service to follow). He served as a lieutenant during WWI, and was on the U.S.S. Carola when he died of pneumonia on 11 February 1919. He was originally buried in Kerfautras Cemetery in Brest France. Following the war his remains were removed and reburied in Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington VA. The Gold Star Mothers of Massachusetts book shows: “NIMMO, Hugh Watson, Lieutenant, U.S.N., died 11 Feb 1919 at U.S. Naval Hospital, Brest, France, of disease. Enl. 1901 U.S.N.,; 3 March 1917 to duty on “Panther”; transf. 24 June 1918 to “Prometheus.” Boatswain Dec. 16, 1915. Ensign (temp) 15 Aug 1917; Lieut. (JG) (temp) 9 March 1918, from 1 Feb 1918; Lieut Oct 25, 1918 from Sept 21, 1918.
Born about 1886 at Somersworth NH, son of William and Elizabeth (Taylor) Nimmo; brother of Mrs. J.T. Arcy of Cambridge, Mrs. M.H. Sidebotham of Cliftondale, and Mrs. B.I. Browne of Bridgton, Me. Maried Maud Sophia Cofran. Children: Lucile M., Evelyn Ruth. (page 240).” His service is attributed to Massachusetts.
 Joseph Alfred Poirier was born 22 November 1896 in Somersworth NH, son of Alfred & Lucy (Gagnon) Poirier. In 1900 he was living with his family along with siblings Alfred, Antonio, Alice, Blanch, Armand and Marie Louise Poirier. In 1917 when he completed his WWI Registration form he was living at 103 Franklin St., Somersworth NH, employed by Daniel Martin, Ship Yard, Newington NH. Joseph A. Poirier’s death certificate shows that he died in a hospital room at Hanover NH Training Detachment, while in private training for the U.S. Army on 25 Sep 1918, age 21y 10m 3d of pneumonia, two days duration, influenza of 10 days. He was buried in Somersworth NH.
 Joseph Roleau Jr. was born 14 May 1892 at St. Elzear-de-Liniere, Beauce, Quebec Canada, son of Joseph Israel & Georgianna (Sylvain) Rouleau. He had siblings: Marie/Mary, Lea, Alphonsine, Exilia, Merilda, Lilian, Mary Rose and Lionel. By 1902 the Roleau family had moved from Canada to Somersworth NH. He served during WW1 in Co C 309th Infantry, 78th Division. He served in the U.S. Army and on 20 May 1918 he left for Europe, from the port of Brooklyn NY on the ship “Morvada.” His next of kin at that time was his father Joseph Roleau Sr. of 240 Main Street “Summerswood” [sic Somersworth] NH. He was reported killed in action in France on 20 October 1918. The NH Adjutant General List attributes him to Lincoln NH [Editor’s note: I believe this to be a typo]. In the 1930s his mother Georgianna Roleau was on the New Hampshire Gold Star Mother’s List. He is buried in Meuse-Argonne Cemetery, France.
 Albert E. Vezeau was born in May of 1896 at Somersworth NH, son of Ulderic & Agnes Delphine (Grechette) Vezeau. He had siblings Edward, Joseph, Philia, Mrs. Wilfred Deshaies, Mrs. George Perrault and Mrs. James Flannigan. He was a resident of 5 years in Massachusetts, working as a clerk prior to his death, so his service is attributed there. He died at the U.S.Army Hospital #16 in New Haven CT of disease on 24 April 1919. The Gold Star Mothers of Massachusetts add additional information: “Ent. 23 Sep 1917, Co. L, 301st Inf. 76th Div.; trans. 3 July to 15th Co., 4th Training Bn., 151st D.B.; 4 Dec to Casual Detatchment, 151st D.B.” He is buried in Mount Calvaire Cemetery, Somersworth NH.
✫★✫★✪ SOMERSWORTH NH: SURVIVORS OF WWI ✪✫★✫★
The following is the biography of one soldier, Sgt. Winthrop H. Guptill who I have photographs of, with a list of others known to have fought and survived WWI.
Winthrop H. Guptill* | Sergeant | Wounded in Action October 18, 1918 | Co A 319th Machine Gun Battalion | Survived the War, died 1979.
Winthrop Harvey Guptill was born 16 May 1895
in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, son of Oscar L. & Una (Keyser) Guptill. His WWI Registration form was completed in Somersworth NH, and he stated that he was single, working as a machinist for Brackett-Shaw of Berwick Maine. He was of medium build, tall with dark brown hair and blue eyes. On 3 of May 1918 he left NYC aboard the ship Corsican, en route to Europe. He returned to NYC from France aboard the ship Huron on 6 May 1919. The Military Index shows: Serial
Number: 1895353; Residence Place: Auburn; Military Date: 13 May 1919; Comments: Ind: Dover, N. H., Oct. 2/17. Pvt; Pvt 1st cl Nov. 13/17; Cpl Mar. 1/18; Sgt Aug. 19/18. Org: Co A 319 MG Bn to Oct. 24/18; Hq Det 319 MG Bn to Jan. 21/19; Co F 326 MG Bn to Feb. 15/19; Hq Det 319 MG Bn to Feb. 19/19; Co A 319 MG Bn to disch. Eng: St Mihiel; Meuse Argonne; Defensive Sector. Wounded in action: Oct. 18/18. Overseas: May 3/18 to May 6/19. Hon disch on demob: May 13, 1919.” He married 16 Feb 1924 in Kings NY to Beatrice Eloise Boyle. She was b 1 Nov 1904 in Louisiana, and died 20 August 1999 in Bowling Green VA. In 1930 they were living in Windsor CT working as an electrician with his wife and children: Winthrop H, Margaret E [Goulden], Ruth E [Campbell], and Ann E [Bengston]. He died 26 March 1979 at Rocky Hill CT, aged 83 years.
–OTHER SOLDIERS (Survivors)–
– Harry Wingate Campbell, born October 14, 1877 Lynnfield MA, son of Alexander James & Ella Louise (Munroe) Campbell. He m. 5 Nov 1901 in Somersworth NH to Ethel Dell Folsom, dau of Edwin W. & Della (Marston) Folsom. He was a Mason, initiated 28 Dec 1898 Libanus #49 Lodge in Somersworth. I found that he enlisted in the NH National Guard serving in 1898 during the Spanish-American War. According to the Somersworth Historical Society he also served during WWI. He ran “The Rag Shop, ” in Somersworth and other locations. He died March 1964 in NH and is buried in Somersworth.
– Pvt Ernest Deschene, Georgina Deschene mother, ship Maui, D Co 103rd Infantry, left Bordeau France 6 Dec 1918 arrived US 1919
– Pvt W. Dodier, nok father George Dodier, ship Sayonia, Co H 103rd US Infantry, depart NYC 25 Sep 1917
– Pvt Joseph A. Gilbert. Mrs. Christine Gilbert 40 Franklin St Somersworth NH.
– Pvt George Gillmette/Guilmette, son of Alfred Gillmette/Guilmette, Co D, 103rd Infantry, departing Hobken NJ/NYC on 27 Sep 1917, Ship Caltie
– Pvt Archie B. Gosselin, son of Archie Gosselin, 301st Trench Mortary Battery, ship Port Lincoln, departing Boston MA on 16 July 1918.
– Pvt Joseph A. Goulette, Joseph Goulette 20 Hanson St. Somersworth NH
– Private Fred Legro, son of Helen A. Legro, ship Canada, Battery D 54th Artillery CAC, leaving Portland ME 22 March 1918; left Bordeau France 25 Dec 1918 arriving 1919. HQ Far Btry
– P1C Joseph Michaud, brother of Albert Michaud, 103rd Inf, Co. G.; left NYC 25 Sep 1917, departed Brest France 28 March 1919 arr Boston MA 5 April 1919.
– Pvt Alfred Morin, nok brother William Morin, ship Saxonia, left NYC 25 Dec 1917, co F, 103rd Infantry
– Pvt Alfred J. MORRILL, nok father Joseph MERRILL, ship Siboney, Rank Pvt Comp Segt, Co. C, Brest Casual Company. Departed Brest France 12 Oct 1919, arrived Hoboken NJ 20 Oct 1919
– Pft. Romeo Nadeau. Alexander Nadeau 13 Indgohill Road Somersworth NH **Ship: Caltie, leaving NYC 27 Sep 1917, Private, Co D 103rd Infantry
–Pvt James Perrault, Peter Perrault 57 Indigo-hill Road, Somersworth NH
– Pvt Loranzo Pouliot, nok Adel Pouliot, Co G 103rd Infantry, left NYC 25 Sep 1917
– Pvt Edgar Routier. Ernest Routier 65 Union St Somersworth NH Bro.
– 1st Lieut William H. Shanahan, MD Medical Detatchment, 64th Artillery, CAC Coast Artillery Corps, sister Mrs. Nellie Dooley; Departed NYC 14 July 1918
– William Shanahan b 27 Oct 1885 Somersworth NH son of Philip & Catherine/Katherine (Ward) Shanahan] [Officer, 64th Artillery CAD Army Medical Corps died 11 June 1958 buried Cavalry Cemetery, South Portland ME.
–Pvt Emile Turgeon. Mary Turgeon 75 Union St Somersworth NH
– Pvt Frederick Veilleu, son of Amede Veilleu, Battery D, 54th Artillery CAC, departed Portland ME 22 March 1918
[Editor’s Note: this story is part of an on-going series about heroic New Hampshire men and women of World War I. Look here for the entire listing].